Make your organic garden at home and better feed

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Eating and vegetables harvested in time is not a privilege of those who live in or on houses and offers large spaces.
You can have a garden up on the window sill, rowing vases with herbs and spices using organic farming techniques the – involving the responsible use of the soil, air, water and all natural resources, with a direct positive impact on health, because they do not use chemical fertilizers and pesticides, hormones, veterinary drugs, antibiotics or genetically modified in the cultivation of vegetables, herbs and fruits.
The Brazil, so variety of climates and soil, only ranks fifth in organic farming, with only 940,000 hectares, according to the Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (FIBL in the original German acronym). On the other hand, with the most intense adoption of healthy lifestyles, the demand for organic food is growing every year. According to the Ministry of Agriculture, there was a 52% increase in the number of organic farmers in the country 2014 to 2015.
But one need not be a small producer to take advantage of the benefits of organic food on a daily basis. Small spaces can serve as a basis to build a garden Simply plan. You must choose the right species, the planting site or where to put the pots, adequate lighting and fertilization, as well as irrigation.

Check out tips for you to build an organic garden at home.

HOW TO RIDE A HORTA
To have a garden at home you need to plan. There are a number of factors that influence, from the place of installation – whether it is a garden in pots or a bed – until planting. It is worth making a checklist to ensure its organic production at home.
And even if it takes a while to see the results – the plants growing – persists. For use products that do not harm the soil or the environment, organically grown foods may take to develop. But you’ll have fruits, much healthier and vegetables!
important tips
• Choose the medium in which the plant will grow: soil, substrates prepared on site or purchased;
• Set as will planting: seed, cuttings of seedlings, shoots, bulbs, tubers and stolons;
• Always use good quality water to not contaminate the vegetables and soil;
• Sun: the plant needs sunlight to develop and produce carbohydrates (glucose, starch) through photosynthesis;
• Air: the whole plant breathes (including the roots);
• Nutrients: if the soil is poor in nutrients, you need to supplement with fertilizers;
• Hand labor: the garden is an activity that requires daily care, so have patience and discipline;
• Tools: rake, spray, wheelbarrow, watering can or rubber hose, set of garden tools (with spoons transplantation and rastelinho), blades (curved, straight), fork or claw.

Phase 1 – Site selection

Prefer local plans or slightly inclined to facilitate the flow of water. Even in an apartment, the pots or window boxes should receive direct sunlight for a period of 4 to 6 hours per day. The soil should preferably be, sandy clay, or over-aerated, for better root development. When planning a construction, the largest dimension (length) must be arranged in north-south direction, to better take advantage of the movement of the sun. The site should be 20 cm higher than the floor level, with an average of 120 cm of width and length as the space you have available, there is no limit. In the seedbed, plan the distribution of plantations drawing a map of the area with the location of each sequence of seedlings or seeds and harvest time (see table), avoiding the continuous cultivation of the same species. This is known as crop rotation. In pots, window boxes or planters: search only identify which species may or may not be grown together – the so-called consortium of plants.
Prefer local plans or slightly inclined to facilitate the flow of water. Even in an apartment, the pots or window boxes should receive direct sunlight for a period of 4 to 6 hours per day. The soil should preferably be, sandy clay, or over-aerated, for better root development. When planning a construction, the largest dimension (length) must be arranged in north-south direction, to better take advantage of the movement of the sun. The site should be 20 cm higher than the floor level, with an average of 120 cm of width and length as the space you have available, there is no limit. In the seedbed, plan the distribution of plantations drawing a map of the area with the location of each sequence of seedlings or seeds and harvest time (see table), avoiding the continuous cultivation of the same species. This is known as crop rotation. In pots, window boxes or planters: search only identify which species may or may not be grown together – the so-called consortium of plants.

plants
companions
antagonists

Pumpkin
Corn, green beans, chard, chicory and peanuts
Corn, green beans, chard, chicory and peanuts

Lettuce
Carrot, radish, strawberry, cucumber, leek
Parsley and sunflower

Chard
Pod

Garlic and onion
Lettuce, beets, strawberry, chamomile, tomatoes, cabbage
Peas, beans

Peanut
Peanut

Potato
Beans, corn, cabbage, marigold, eggplant, garlic, peas, cabbage
Pumpkin, cucumber, sunflower, tomato, zucchini

Eggplant
Onion, lettuce, turnips, cabbage, green beans
Beans climbing

chive
Carrot, cabbage
Peas, beans

Carrot
Peas, lettuce, marjoram, beans, onions, chives, radish, rosemary, tomato
Dill

Chicory
Arugula, green beans, radishes

Pea
Carrot, turnip, radish, cucumber, corn, beans, squash, corn, herbs
Onion, garlic, potato, gladioli

Spinach
Strawberry, beans, beets, cauliflower

Cabbage, kale, broccoli, cauliflower
Aromatic plants, potato, celery, beets, onions, lettuce
Strawberries, tomatoes, beans, climbing, marjoram

Corn
Potatoes, peas, beans, cucumber, pumpkin, melon, watermelon, wheat, sunflower, arugula, turnips, radishes, okra, mustard, milkweed
gladioli

Strawberry
Spinach, lettuce, tomatoes, beans white
Cabbage, kale, fennel

Turnip
Peas, beans, rosemary, mint, corn
Tomato

Cucumber
Sunflower, beans, corn, peas, radishes, lettuce
Potatoes, herbs

Okra
Corn

Radish
Lettuce, peas, cucumber, watercress, carrots, spinach, corn, green beans, chicory
Chard

rocket
Chicory, green beans, corn, lettuce
Parsley

Parsley
Tomato, asparagus, rose bushes
Tomato, asparagus, rose bushes

Celery (celery)
Leeks, tomatoes, cauliflower, cabbage,

Tomato
Onion, chives, parsley, marigolds, carrots, milkweed
Potatoes, cabbage, cucumber, beans

Phase 2 – Choice of varieties

In the case of vegetables, the temperature is the most influential factor on production (click here to see the table): affects the vegetative growth, flowering, fruiting, the formation of tuberous or bulbous parts and seed production. In general, vegetables are better development conditions when the weather is mild, with light and infrequent rains. For planting in small environments, prefer the pots and window boxes. Horta vertical: also requires a lot of light and species to adapt their growth in this direction – ideal is to ride in pots or window boxes with herbs and spices.
Table – and vegetable temperatures
What to plant? Large spaces (sites and gardens) Zucchini, rosemary, eggplant, boldo, broccoli, chicory, cabbage, cauliflower, snap pea, spinach, melissa, corn, pepper, okra, cabbage, celery, sage, tomato and vagem.Pequenos spaces (apartment balconies and house yards) Watercress, lettuce, chicory, beet, lemon grass, shallots, carrot, coriander, dill, tarragon, mint, basil, marjoram, oregano, radishes, arugula, parsley and tomilho.Quando plant? There are fruits and vegetables that fit well in any season, but when speaking of leafy vegetables the best time to grow them is in winter. Autumn is also a time of lower incidence of pests and diseases. The important thing is that the plantations made during this period have at least sunny days leave to get the most vigorous vegetables.

Kind of vegetable
Temperature
Examples

Leaves, roots and bulbs
Amena – between 15 and 23 ° C
Lettuce, cabbage, chicory, chicory, rocket salad, spinach, carrot, beet, radish, parsley, parsnip, onion, garlic

Fruits and spices
The higher – 18 to 30 ° C
The higher – 18 to 30 ° C

Step 3 – Prepare the soil

soil remediation
Soil preparation is one of the most important operations for successful organic vegetable cultivation, because it keeps the balance needed to ensure proper development of plants to withstand adversity (unfavorable weather conditions, pest attacks and diseases, among others ). Liming and organic fertilizer consist of limestone application for liming and fertilizer and organic compounds and repair any mineral deficiencies and improve soil bioestrutura. Liming should be done before planting.
Fertilizing
In organic farming fertilization is focused on the ground, unlike conventional in which the focus is the plant. The goal is to maintain healthy and rich soil organisms, beneficial to the soil and plants. The organic fertilization results in a constant and balanced process, and not lower the resistance of the plant.

Organic fertilizers: are products of vegetable or animal origin that provide the necessary nutrients to the roots for good vegetative growth, without damaging the soil. Example: animal manure, comminuted plant materials, compounds, vegetable pies, etc. The application should be in the total area of ​​the raised grooves or pits are uniformly incorporating them. Another organic fertilizer is the Bokashi, rich in nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium – the three key nutrients for plants sold at garden for food stores.
green manure is the practice of growing vegetables and incorporate them into the soil. The most suitable plants are used and legumes, providing large amounts of organic matter and nitrogen from the air incorporated through the symbiotic fixation. The best known are: soybean, velvet beans, Canavalia ensiformis, pigeon pea, sunn, etc. You can also use the grass family plants (ex .: black oats, corn, etc.).
Biofertilizers: Liquid fertilizers are obtained from the degradation of organic material (manure and vegetable waste) under aerobic and anaerobic conditions digester.

composting
It is the technique to provide faster and better able to stabilize the organic material forming the organic compound which, after decomposition by worms, gives rise to humus. What can be used: dried leaves, straw, sawdust, wood ashes, feathers, organic household waste (less oil and animal fat), grass clippings, rock ground and shells, pruning, food industry waste, newspapers (less colored), peat, seaweed, grass, weeds, coffee grounds, peanut shell, peel fruit.

Step a basic step: sowing or planting in pots and flower boxes

Choose a vase, flowerpot or planter with several holes in the bottom to drain irrigation water.
Line a thin layer of expanded clay based. Tip: you can put tile pieces to help water infiltrate better and not be retained by the clay.
Place a thin layer of sand, which makes the filter function.
Line with a blanket bidim, gravel or crushed stone powder to ensure good drainage.
Fill almost to the brim with two pieces of land, part of the organic compound and a part humus? – leaving a free layer of approximately 2 cm. Do not squeeze or fluff very down to earth, so that it is uncompressed and block the air intake.
Place the seedlings, seeds or bulbs in the ground, leaving a gap between them, 2-4 cm.
Plant vegetables like lettuce, arugula and watercress in the central part and the slower growth of herbs and fruits, in the corners. So you can better handle container without wasting raw materials.

Step a basic step: vertical Horta

After planting in pots or planter, you should provide for a vertical place to post them.
Drill holes also behind the vessel, to bring a hook that will secure it to the panel: can be a metal lattice, itself an aluminum support or a wooden crate. Prefer a vase shaped like a half moon. Thus, the straight part is based on the trellis and the wall.
Just to fix the vessels already drilled, with attached hook and engage the wall of the metal vessel to a suspended garden. An alternative is to place a gate grid or make a wooden trellis.

Step by basic step: sowing or planting in the yard

Clean and Weed the area where the garden will be installed to remove debris, stumps and roots of trees, and other debris. Important: burning is prohibited in organic management practice. Clean the area to be planted. You need to take herbs, grass, old plants and stones. Enjoy these natural waste to produce their own? Natural fertilizer.
With a spade or hoe, revolve the soil to a depth of 20 to 25cm (approximately one inch), break the clods and level the ground.
Mix the seeds with sand and spread by hand on the most uniform way possible site;
Incorporate correctives, such as limestone or organic fertilizers (eg .: tanned animal manures, organic compounds, etc.).
If you want to build beds for planting, direct seeding and transplanting seedlings, make width between 0.80 and 1.20 m; height 20 to 25 cm and variable length according to the size of the ground.
In the case of seeds, always check the instructions on the packaging and group them according to these guidelines or as directed by a specialist.
For some greenery there is no need of beds: just revolver and destorroar the earth and then open pits, manure and plant such as pumpkin, okra, eggplant, eggplant and cabbage.
Leave a distance of 30 to 40cm between the beds, which should be maintained and protected with mulch for weed control, maintenance of moisture and heat balance of the soil

Tips for gardens in different sizes

Having a garden at home does not require much space. See hints specific areas of 1m2 to 5m2.
1m2 yard

Divide one square meter of land into 16 squares of the same size (25 square centimeters).
The larger plants must be in the ranks of back and lower in the front ranks, so the sunlight comes for all. In the case of seeds, they can be placed in flats or pots
However small the garden, the organic compound is essential, because there is always leaves, branches, and debris from vegetables, shells, etc., kitchen that are replaced by a more ecological order. You can buy or build your composter. Build, keep in mind that this should at least have a capacity of 0.5 m3 (500 l) to be able to store the compound of the year.

Yard from 1 to 5 m

If you have a slightly larger space, you can plant species directly into the ground in a flower bed. You can cultivate the same food given to the vessels, as well as others who need more space.
Remember to mark the spacing (eg lettuce feet should be two feet from each other);
Place the seedlings interspersed way, Triangle, to prevent erosion;
Drizzle once a day. In warm regions, twice a day until the seedlings appear – always in the cooler hours, preferably in the morning.

5m yard
If you have a larger area, as a large yard, you can make a more structured garden and with greater variety of foods.

If you have pets, put a fence of bamboo, wood or other material so that they do not come.?
If you live in a dry area, you need to have a water source nearby.
Place the? Organic compound? On earth for it to be more fertile and fruits and vegetables grow easily. Spread a layer of 4 cm fertilizer and mix well to the earth’s surface.
To plant, make a drawing of your garden. Inquire about how grows fruit, vegetables and vegetable that you intend to plant, how they should be grouped and what is the required distance between them for good growth.
Make grooves every 30 cm, crossing the entire garden, so that you walk through the plantation smoothly Place bricks, stones or wood within these grooves.

like watering

Design your plants
In organic farming, it is forbidden to use any chemical to protect or treat your plants appear if pests or diseases. You will only use home pesticides, attractive and biological repellents, planting and intercropping biopesticides. The peak of pests and diseases is in spring and summer, when there is greater temperature and moisture, favorable conditions for the development of microorganisms that attack plants.
How to prevent pests and insects

homemade pesticides: with common ingredients in the kitchen, you can combat fungi, insects, mites and even rats.
Attractive and biological repellents: natural substances can help you make traps against pests that attack your garden, such as neem oil and citronella. You can switch use: a week of neem and citronella a week, to ensure the effectiveness of the process.
Planting syndicated: plant consisting of two or more species of plants together, so that a help repellent to pests (s) of the other (s). Be careful not to put together species that steal nutrients from each other. Plants should be companions.
Make infusion of horsetail to help fight the fungus.
For the control of aphids and caterpillars, ash and Dipel (bacteria) are good alternatives. For ants, there is the coffee grounds and bioisca (natural ant killer). You can also make an infusion or spraying bits of string, according to the manufacturer’s instructions.
Tip: spraying, always take the side of the sheet (face up and down), to increase by 40% the efficacy of treatment.

Harvest Time

When his garden der result, harvest vegetables, herbs and / or fruit in less heat of the day, for the plant to lose less water. If you think gave too much fruit, give some to your relatives and friends or ‘cook and freeze the surplus, to enjoy later.

Pumpkins and squash: for green zucchini harvest begins to 80-90 days after sowing; to mature or “dry” pumpkins – to 120 to 150 days when the fruit have very dry stalks and peel resistant to the penetration of the nail; pumpkins for 90 to 150 days.
zucchini: the fruits of about 20 cm and the pulp and very young immature seeds.
Lettuce: is harvested when the plant or “head” achieve maximum development, however, with the tender leaves and flowering without evidence. In general, after 90 days.
Garlic: to 110-140 days for quick cultivars and 140-170 days for the average cycle.
Chicory and arugula: gather up the most developed leaves, leaving the younger leaves the core of the plant.
Potato: to 90-115 days, after complete and natural drying of the aerial part of the plant.
Eggplant: is harvested when the fruit are well colored, shiny, soft and firm flesh and 16-20cm in length; spoon morning, cutting the stalk (leaving 3-4cm to prevent rot).
Beet: to 60-70 days for direct seeding and 90-100 days for transplanted seedlings with roots 6 to 8 cm in diameter.
Broccoli: Spoon the “head” central and lateral shoots when they are with intense green color and the still unopened buds.
Onion: spoon when the bulb reaches its maximum size when turn yellow and dry leaves.
Carrot: when the lower leaves begin to yellow and dry, and the top is open, the ends coming to abut on the road surface.
Cabbage: the leaves are harvested by breaking the stalk close to the stem, leaving forever, with the central bud of the plant, 4-5 smaller leaves growing.
Cauliflower: Cut the “head” with a group of leaves to protect it.
Turnip: spoon when baixeiras leaves begin to turn yellow.
Cucumber: is harvested when the fruits reach the commercial point (hillbilly: 12 to 14cm long; Aodai and Japanese: fruit tender, dark green, with 20 to 25cm).
Okra: the ideal harvest occurs 4-7 days Flower fall, when the fruits are still tender, slightly fibrous, being able to break the tip easily by pressing with your finger.
Radish: spoon to 30-40 days, when the roots present globular shape, intense red color and about 3 cm in diameter.
Cabbage: is harvested when the “head” is very compact, closed with well-bonded inner sheets to each other; the cover leaves begin to curl back slightly.
Tomato: to table, the harvest begins 50 days after flowering and lasts 2-3 months.

Where to find products and inputs
It is common to find for purchase in the supply centers, and supermarkets, garden centers and shops on the internet. Here are some suggestions:
Where to buy:
www.sabordefazenda.com.br www.plantei.com.br www.cobasi.com.br www.biosementes.com.br www.leroymerlin.com.br www.cec.com.br www.casadoadubo.com.br

To learn more: courses and information
www.aao.org.br https://www.embrapa.br/agrobiologia/pesquisa-e-desenvolvimento/agroecologia-e-producao-organica www.prohumanitas.org.br http://www.canalrural.com.br / news / garden-at-home / know-how-one-cultivated garden-organic-house-53820

Credits Photos:
Evelyn Müller
Sources consulted: Organic Agriculture Association (AAO); Ana Claudia Costa Pinto Ethel (landscape and jardinista) and Marcelo Noronha (agronomist);
Books: Horta: vegetable cultivation (the Municipality of São Paulo) and Planning Hortas installation (Embrapa).

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