Coronavirus (ICD10) is a family of viruses that cause respiratory infections. The new coronavirus agent was discovered on 12/31/19 after cases registered in China. It causes the disease called COVID-19. As we have never had contact with the virus before, we have no immunity. It causes a lung infection. In the mildest cases, however, it looks like a common cold or mild flu.
The first human coronaviruses were isolated for the first time in 1937. However, it was in 1965 that the virus was described as coronavirus, due to the profile under microscopy, looking like a crown.
Most people are infected with common coronaviruses throughout their lives, with young children being more likely to become infected with the most common type of virus. The most common coronaviruses that infect humans are alpha coronavirus 229E and NL63 and beta coronavirus OC43, HKU1.
Coronavirus incubation period
Incubation period is the time it takes for the first symptoms to appear since coronavirus infection, which can be 2 to 14 days.
How is the coronavirus transmitted?
Transmission occurs from one sick person to another or through close contact through:
The touch of the handshake is the main form of contagion
Droplets of saliva
Contaminated objects or surfaces such as cell phones, tables, door handles, toys and computer keyboards etc.
What are the symptoms of coronavirus?
The most common symptoms are:
Among other flu-like symptoms
If symptoms appear, call 136 or seek medical attention.
Frequently asked questions about corona virus
How does coronavirus transmission occur?
Investigations on transmission of the new coronavirus are still ongoing. At this moment transmission by contact with secretions is established. Transmission can occur continuously, that is, someone infected by the virus can pass it on to someone who has not yet been infected.
Transmission usually occurs by air or by personal contact with contaminated secretions, such as:
– Droplets of saliva;
– Close personal contact, such as touching or shaking hands with an infected person;
– Contact with contaminated objects or surfaces, followed by contact with the mouth, nose or eyes.
Some viruses are highly contagious, such as measles, which is transmitted by aerosol (particles in the air), with a transmission rate of one to up to 18 people, on average. The knowledge already recorded about coronaviruses indicates that they transmit from one to up to three people.
Can coronavirus kill?
Death can occur due to complications of infection, such as respiratory failure. The most recent data from WHO (World Health Organization) indicate a mortality rate of 2 to 3% of confirmed cases.
How to prevent COVID-19?
The main guidelines are:
– Cover mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing;
– Use disposable tissue for nasal hygiene;
– Avoid touching mucous membranes of the eyes, nose and mouth;
– Do not share objects for personal use;
– Clean the room regularly and keep it ventilated;
– Wash your hands for at least 20 seconds with soap and water or use alcohol-based hand antiseptic;
– Shifts / trips should not be made while the person is ill;
– Anyone traveling to places with virus circulation should avoid contact with sick people, animals (living or dead), in addition to avoiding circulation in animal markets and their products.
How is coronavirus prevention for healthcare professionals?
Healthcare professionals should use standard protective measures for contact and droplets (surgical mask, gloves, non-sterile apron and goggles).
To perform procedures that generate aerosolization of respiratory secretions such as intubation, airway aspiration or sputum induction, a N95 aerosol precaution mask should be used.
What to do in case of symptoms?
As soon as the first symptoms appear, the patient should seek the health service closest to his home. The professional will assess whether the symptoms may indicate any likelihood of coronavirus infection, collect material for diagnosis and start treatment.
The infection has clinical manifestations similar to those of other viruses and there is no specific treatment for coronavirus infections so far. Thus, in the case of the new coronavirus, it is indicated:
– Hydration (drinking plenty of water and fluids);
– Measures adopted to relieve symptoms, according to each case, such as: use of pain and fever medication (antipyretics and analgesics); use of humidifier in the room; take a hot shower to assist in